@article {Kopiez383,
author = {Kopiez, Reinhard},
title = {Intonation of Harmonic Intervals: Adaptability of Expert Musicians to Equal Temperament and Just Intonation},
volume = {20},
number = {4},
pages = {383--410},
year = {2003},
doi = {10.1525/mp.2003.20.4.383},
publisher = {University of California Press Journals},
abstract = {This study examines the deviation in the intonation of simultaneously sounding tones under the condition of an embedded melody task. Two professional musicians (trumpet players) were chosen as subjects to play the missing upper voice of a four-part audio example, while listening via headphones to the remaining three parts in adaptive five-limit just intonation and equal temperament. The experimental paradigm was that of a controlled varied condition with a 2 (tuning systems) {\texttimes}{\texttimes} 5 (interval categories) {\texttimes}{\texttimes} 5 (renditions) {\texttimes}{\texttimes} 2 (players) factorial design. An analysis of variance showed a nonsignificant difference between the average deviation of harmonic intonation in the two systems used. Mean deviations of 4.9 cents (SD = 6.5 cents) in the equal-temperament condition and of 6.7 cents (SD = 8.1 cents) in the just-intonation condition were found. Thus, we assume that the musicians employed the same intonation for equaltemperament and just-intonation versions (an unconscious "always the same" strategy) and could not successfully adapt their performances to the just-intonation tuning system. Fewer deviations could be observed in the equal-temperament condition. This overall tendency can be interpreted as a "burn in" effect and is probably the consequence of longterm intonation practice with equal-temperament. Finally, a theoretical model of intonation is developed by use of factor analysis. Four factors that determine intonation patterns were revealed: the "major third factor," the "minor third and partials factor," the "instrumental tuning factor," and the "octave-minor seventh factor." To summarize, even in expert musicians, intonation is not determined by abstract tuning systems but is the result of an interaction among compositional features, the acoustics of the particular musical instrument, and deviation patterns in specific intervals.},
issn = {0730-7829},
URL = {http://mp.ucpress.edu/content/20/4/383},
eprint = {http://mp.ucpress.edu/content/20/4/383.full.pdf},
journal = {Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal}
}