in developing a visual feedback system for a creative activity such as music performance, the objective is not just to reinforce one particular manner of performing. Instead, a desirable characteristic might be that the visual feedback enhances flexibility and originality, in addition to contributing to performance precision. In an experimental study focused on the timing of a musical ornament, we examined whether the instruction to explore ornament timing in training trials with or without visual feedback leads to improved temporal precision in imitating target performances of the ornament, and whether visual feedback enhances the performance diversity during training. The study uncovered distinct strategies of exploration of the performance of the musical ornament and highlighted the dynamics of exploration behavior during training. Visual feedback enhanced exploration of temporal characteristics and influenced imitation accuracy. This study opens up educational possibilities for the training of performance skills and provides direction for further investigation of creative processes in performance.
- Received January 29, 2011.
- Accepted March 22, 2012.
- © 2012 by The Regents of the University of California