active engagement with music has been associated with cognitive, emotional, and social benefits, although measures of musicianship are typically limited to music training. A self-report questionnaire was developed to assess both quality and quantity of different forms of music use, with eight music background items, and a further 124 items testing music engagement. Analysis of engagement items with an initial sample (N = 210; mean age = 37.55 years, SD = 11.31) generated four reliable engagement styles (Cognitive and Emotional Regulation, Engaged Production, Social Connection, Dance and Physical Exercise). Analysis of an independent sample with a refined 50-item scale (N = 124; mean age = 22.78 years, SD = 6.17) supported the findings, further differentiating between “Physical Exercise” and “Dance.” Taken together with the eight music background items, the Music USE (MUSE) questionnaire can be used as a 58-item, or in a reduced 32-item format. Validity was demonstrated in relationships between music background indices, styles of music engagement, demographics, the brief Music Experience Questionnaire (Werner, Swope, & Heide, 2006), and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003). The MUSE offers researchers a sensitive approach to exploring benefits of music engagement, by encapsulating both quality and quantity dimensions of music use.
- music training
- Received February 1, 2011.
- Accepted August 29, 2011.
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