Steele (2003) raised several concerns regarding Rauscher, Robinson, and Jens’ (1998) study that found improved maze running following early music exposure in rats. Steele’s primary criticisms were that the rats in the Rauscher et al. study were only able to hear 31% of the notes and that a selection bias resulting in preexisting differences between groups could account for the disparity in their performance. Here we provide evidence that the rats heard a substantially higher percentage of notes than Steele reported and that there were no preexisting differences between groups. A recent replication is discussed that shows a neurophysiological basis for a Mozart effect in rats.
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