Previous research has shown that listeners with absolute pitch identify white-key pitches (as on the piano) more quickly and accurately than they identify black-key pitches. Related research has shown that the timbre of tones also affects pitch identification. Our experiments extend the investigation of color and timbre effects on pitch recognition from isolated pitches to more complex musical textures, using both musicians with absolute pitch and musicians without absolute pitch as participants. In Experiment 1, listeners named isolated pitches in synthesized violin or piano timbres; in Experiment 2, they named the tonal center of classical string quartets or piano solos; in Experiment 3, they identified the tonal center of the same musical excerpts by humming. We replicated the color effect for both groups of participants in the response times for all three experiments, but found a color effect on accuracy rates only in Experiment 2. Timbre effects were found only in Experiment 1, where response times were quicker for piano tones than string tones. Participants' instrumental training affected response times: string players identified isolated tones most quickly; keyboard players identified the keys of compositions most quickly.