Fundamental problems and dilemmas for the study of tonality induction are reviewed. I focus on two different, although related types of research impediments. The first is the fuzziness of the key notion "tonality" itself, which leads to divergent conceptualizations of tonality induction, such as "key finding," "tonal induction," "tonal center perception," and "tonal feeling." I argue that the fuzziness is largely due to the lack of welldefined historical or otherwise categorical boundaries of "Western tonal music." The second impediment arises from various dualities in music, notably tone versus note representations, tonal versus intervallic representations, horizontal ("leading voice") cues for tonality induction versus vertical ones ("fundamentals"), and tonal versus temporal tonality induction cues. (Dis) advantages of various interpretations of tonality induction and of solutions of the dualities in question are considered. A few recommendations for reconciliation between currently divergent theoretical approaches to tonality induction are suggested.