Music science typically and naturally focuses on experts' perceptual, cognitive, and aesthetic responses to music. Novices receive far less empirical and theoretical attention. This asymmetry could eventually constrain or limit the discipline. To illustrate this point, existing data are used to compare the performance of experts and novices in a variety of music paradigms. Experts are sensitive to music's tonal materials (e.g., octaves, intervals) and their listening preferences and evaluative standards reflect this sensitivity. In contrast, novices are often less sensitive to music's tonal materials, and their listening preferences and evaluative standards reflect this insensitivity. A music science that included novices more fully would be more comprehensive and better prepared to address basic questions about music's evolution and its universal structure.